Our world is ageing and, in some countries and regions, rapidly. The fact that people now live longer, in better health, and generally in better conditions than ever before is a remarkable success story. But what opportunities and challenges does this bring? This report brings together new work that reconceptualises the “costs” of ageing. It aims to shift the debate from one that is narrowly defined by financing and expenditure to one that focuses on social investment and long term planning, in short, arguing for more of a positive approach.